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经常会有人问我,自己的Windows出问题了怎么办。这里记下维护Windows不出问题的方法,以及出了问题后怎么处理的方法,还有Windows下一些常用的工具。

<<TableOfContents>>

== 怎么保证Windows安全 ==

 * 升级到Windows 10,而不是用Windows 8、7、Vista或XP。
 * '''打上所有Windows系统补丁,并经常检查有没有新的补丁'''
 * 帐户设置:
   * 所有管理员帐户(属于Administrators组的帐户)设置足够复杂的密码(由字母、数字和特殊字符组成)
   * 禁用Guest帐户
 * 安装杀毒软件。Windows 10自带杀毒软件,不要关闭就可以了。
 * (可选)对于在不安全的局域网中使用的Windows系统,最好做好路由器地址的MAC-IP绑定,比如说{{{arp -s 192.168.0.1 00-04-61-25-22-6A}}},这里192.168.0.1是路由器地址,00-04-61-25-22-6A是路由器的网卡MAC地址。
 * (可选)使用[[https://www.mozilla.org/zh-CN/firefox/|Firefox]]来代替IE,在Firefox中加装[[http://noscript.net/|NoScript]]插件。


== Windows出问题了怎么办? ==

 * 拨打微软的售后服务电话:800-820-3800 (品牌机用户拨打品牌售后服务电话)
 * 用[[http://www.debian.org/|Debian Linux]]、[[http://www.ubuntu.com/|Ubuntu Linux]]、[[http://www.freebsd.org/|FreeBSD]]、[[http://www.apple.com/macosx/|MacOSX]]等代替Windows
 
== Windows下软件安装 ==
优先使用以下方式安装软件:
 * Windows自带的App Store
 * Windows的包管理工具 https://chocolatey.org/

== 常用软件 ==
 * [[常见软件价格]]
 * 开发环境
   * [[http://www.mingw.org/|MinGW]]
   * [[https://www.cygwin.com/|Cygwin]]
 * 媒体播放
||视频播放器|| [[https://kodi.tv/|KODI]] [[https://www.videolan.org/vlc/index.html|VLC]] [[http://sourceforge.net/projects/guliverkli/|Media Player Classics]] ||
||编解码器||[[http://www.free-codecs.com/download/FFDShow.htm|ffdshow]]||
||音频播放器||[[http://www.foobar2000.org/|foobar2000]] ||
||网络点播||[[http://www.sopcast.com/|sopcast]]||
 * 网络软件
||WEB浏览器||[[http://www.mozilla.com/firefox/|firefox]] [[https://www.torproject.org/download/|Tor Browser]]||
||IM软件||[[http://www.skype.com/|Skype]] [[Telegram]]||
||Ftp/Sftp客户端||[[http://filezilla-project.org/|filezilla]] [[http://winscp.net/eng/docs/lang:chs|WinScp]]||
||电驴||[[http://www.emule-project.net/|emule]]||
||ssh客户端||[[http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/|putty]]||
||bt客户端||[[http://www.bitcomet.com/|bitcomet]]||
||下载工具|| [[http://www.flashget.com/|flashget]] ||
||BBS客户端||[[http://fterm.zj001.net/|fterm]]||
||远程管理软件||[[http://www.realvnc.com/|RealVNC]] [[http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/downloads/tools/rdclientdl.mspx|Remote Desktop Client]] ||
||QOS||[[http://connect.microsoft.com/WNDP/Downloads/DownloadDetails.aspx?DownloadID=9606|tcmonlite动态改变ip包的QOS]]||
 * 系统工具
||查看CPU等硬件详细信息||[[http://www.cpuid.org/cpuz.php|cpu-z]]||
||系统外壳(代替Explorer.exe完成系统任务栏和窗口管理)||[[http://bb4win.sourceforge.net/bblean/|bbLean]]||
||文件管理器(代替Explorer.exe完成文件管理)||[[http://www.gpsoft.com.au/|Directory Opus(收费)]]||
||压缩||[[http://www.7-zip.org/|7-zip]]||
||虚拟光驱||[[http://www.alcohol-soft.com/|alcohol 120(收费软件)]] [[http://www.daemon-tools.cc/|Daemon Tools]]||
||进程管理器||[[http://www.sysinternals.com/Utilities/ProcessExplorer.html|process explorer]]||
||Windows下模拟Unix环境||[[http://www.cygwin.com/|Cygwin]]||
||硬盘保护软件(每次重启时自动还原)||[[http://www.faronics.com/|Deep Freeze]] (收费) [[http://www.microsoft.com/windows/products/winfamily/sharedaccess/default.mspx|Steadystate]]||
||硬盘无损分区工具||[[http://gparted.sourceforge.net/|GParted]]||
||硬盘分区的复制、备份、恢复(类似ghost)||[[http://www.clonezilla.org/|clonezilla]]||
||Windows半开连接数破解||[[http://www.lvllord.de/]]||
||虚拟机||[[http://www.vmware.com/products/player/|VMware Player]] [[http://www.virtualbox.org/|VirtalBox虚拟机]]||
||照片处理||[[http://picasa.google.com/|Picasa]]||
||卫星地图||[[http://earth.google.com/|Google Earth]]||
||Java运行环境||[[http://java.sun.com/|JRE]]||
||.Net运行环境||[[http://msdn.microsoft.com/netframework/|.Net Framework]]||
||数据库管理系统||[[http://www.mysql.com/|MySQL]]||
||窗口总在前面|| [[http://www.rosafamily.org/software/pushpin/index.htm|Push Pin]]||
 * 办公软件
||输入法||[[https://rime.im/]]||
||字典||[[http://stardict.sourceforge.net/|StarDict]] [[https://www.eudic.net/v4/en/app/eudic|EUDIC]]||
||文本编辑器||[[http://notepad-plus.sourceforge.net/|Notepad++]] [[http://www.flos-freeware.ch/notepad2.html|Notepad2]]||
||Office办公套件||[[http://www.openoffice.org/|OpenOffice]] [[https://www.office.com/|Office 365]]||
||pdf阅读器||[[http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html|Adobe Reader]]||
||Office阅读器||[[http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=95E24C87-8732-48D5-8689-AB826E7B8FDF&displaylang=en|Word Viewer 2003]] [[http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=C8378BF4-996C-4569-B547-75EDBD03AAF0&displaylang=en|Excel Viewer 2003]] [[http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=048DC840-14E1-467D-8DCA-19D2A8FD7485&displaylang=en|PowerPoint Viewer 2007]] [[http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/details.aspx?familyid=D88E4542-B174-4198-AE31-6884E9EDD524&displaylang=en|Visio Viewer 2007]]||

== Windows实用小技巧 ==
 * 自动登录:运行{{{
rundll32 netplwiz.dll,UsersRunDll
}}}
 * 修改smb的端口:在注册表中添加如下键值{{{
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\NetBT\Parameters\SMB]

"SessionPort"=dword:00000c1d

"DatagramPort"=dword:00000c1d

}}}其中0c1d是端口号的16进制值。
 * 要运行网络邻居上的程序不弹出安全提示,可以在注册表中添加如下键值:{{{
[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Download]

"CheckExeSignatures"="no"

"RunInvalidSignatures"=dword:00000001



[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Attachments]

"SaveZoneInformation"=dword:00000000




[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\Associations]

"LowRiskFileTypes"=".zip;.rar;.nfo;.txt;.exe;.bat;.com;.cmd;.reg;.msi;.htm;.html;.gif;.bmp;.jpg;.avi;.mpg;.mpeg;.mov;.mp3;.m3u;.wav"

}}}
 * 修改收藏夹的目录,打开注册表中的:{{{
HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Explorer\User Shell Folders
}}}将其中的Favorites键值改成需要的目录。
 * 普通用户帐号登录后,需要执行管理操作(比如安装软件),可以运行:{{{
runas /user:Administrator XXXX
}}}其中XXXX是管理操作的命令
 * 开启WINDOWS高级软件安全策略: {{{
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\Safer\CodeIdentifiers]
"Levels"=dword:00035000
}}}
 * 用vbscript脚本修改windows的默认Tos:{{{
strServer = "."

Set objWMI = GetObject("winmgmts:\\" & strServer & "\root\cimv2")

Set objInstance = objWMI.Get("Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration")

p_DefaultTOS = 0

intResult = objInstance.SetDefaultTOS(p_DefaultTOS)

Select case intResult
 Case 0 : WScript.Echo "Successful completion, no reboot required"
 Case 1 : WScript.Echo "Successful completion, reboot required"
 Case 64 : WScript.Echo "Method not supported on this platform"
 Case 65 : WScript.Echo "Unknown failure"
 Case 66 : WScript.Echo "Invalid subnet mask"
 Case 67 : WScript.Echo "An error occurred while processing an Instance that was returned"
 Case 68 : WScript.Echo "Invalid input parameter"
 Case 69 : WScript.Echo "More than 5 gateways specified"
 Case 70 : WScript.Echo "Invalid IP address"
 Case 71 : WScript.Echo "Invalid gateway IP address"
 Case 72 : WScript.Echo "An error occurred while accessing the Registry for the requested information"
 Case 73 : WScript.Echo "Invalid domain name"
 Case 74 : WScript.Echo "Invalid host name"
 Case 75 : WScript.Echo "No primary/secondary WINS server defined"
 Case 76 : WScript.Echo "Invalid file"
 Case 77 : WScript.Echo "Invalid system path"
 Case 78 : WScript.Echo "File copy failed"
 Case 79 : WScript.Echo "Invalid security parameter"
 Case 80 : WScript.Echo "Unable to configure TCP/IP service"
 Case 81 : WScript.Echo "Unable to configure DHCP service"
 Case 82 : WScript.Echo "Unable to renew DHCP lease"
 Case 83 : WScript.Echo "Unable to release DHCP lease"
 Case 84 : WScript.Echo "IP not enabled on adapter"
 Case 85 : WScript.Echo "IPX not enabled on adapter"
 Case 86 : WScript.Echo "Frame/network number bounds error"
 Case 87 : WScript.Echo "Invalid frame type"
 Case 88 : WScript.Echo "Invalid network number"
 Case 89 : WScript.Echo "Duplicate network number"
 Case 90 : WScript.Echo "Parameter out of bounds"
 Case 91 : WScript.Echo "Access denied"
 Case 92 : WScript.Echo "Out of memory"
 Case 93 : WScript.Echo "Already exists"
 Case 94 : WScript.Echo "Path, file or object not found"
 Case 95 : WScript.Echo "Unable to notify service"
 Case 96 : WScript.Echo "Unable to notify DNS service"
 Case 97 : WScript.Echo "Interface not configurable"
 Case 98 : WScript.Echo "Not all DHCP leases could be released/renewed"
 Case 100 : WScript.Echo "DHCP not enabled on adapter"
End Select
}}}
 * Hp Notebook Dmi Info{{{
#!/bin/sh
# usage: vboxportmap vmname

VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSVendor" "Hewlett-Packard"
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSVersion" "68YHV Ver. F.0B"
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSReleaseDate" "07/13/2007"
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSReleaseMajor" 15
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSReleaseMinor" 11
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSFirmwareMajor" 89
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiBIOSFirmwareMinor" 53
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemVendor" "Hewlett-Packard"
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemProduct" "HP Compaq nc4400 (RH136PA#AB5)"
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemVersion" "F.0B"
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemSerial" "CND6370JW5"
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemUuid" "025E295E-9643-DB11-129C-66990C3E1529"
VBoxManage setextradata $1 "VBoxInternal/Devices/pcbios/0/Config/DmiSystemFamily" "103C_5336AN"
}}}
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